Accumulating evidences indicate that thiamine plays a vital role in the nervous system. However, questions exist as to how it causes epilepsy, neuronal damage, and antiepileptic mechanisms. The study looked at how the thiamine supplement impacted pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats and pentylenetetrazole-induced neurotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y cell line. We used twenty-four male rats and they were randomly divided into 4 groups as control, saline (1 mL/kg/day serum physiologic) + PTZ, thiamine (50 mg/kg/day) + PTZ, and thiamine (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days. PTZ (45 mg/kg) was given to activate the seizure on day 10. Memory efficiency was measured by using passive avoidance. The brain levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), caspase-3, nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were analyzed by using ELISA kits. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with/without thiamine for 1 h, followed by PTZ (30 mu m) at a medium level to trigger neurotoxicity. Cell viability, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and apoptosis were assayed in the SHSY5Y cells. Thiamine delayed the initiation of epileptic seizures and increased memory damage. In addition, 8-OHdG, caspase-3, NO, and cGMP levels were significantly reduced in the brain and prevented pentylenetetrazoleinduced neurotoxicity, apoptosis, enhanced antioxidant, and reduced oxidant in SH-SY5Y cells. Thiamine dramatically altered seizures, memory loss, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Thiamine has a preventative effect on PTZ-induced seizures in rats and PTZ-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. It could prevent oxidative stress and signaling of NO/cGMP. Thiamine supplement could be used as an additional therapeutic agent in epilepsy.