Determination of palaeotectonic and neotectonic features around the Menderes Massif and the Gediz Graben (western Turkey) using Landsat TM image

Kavak K. Ş.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, vol.26, no.1, pp.59-78, 2005 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/01431160410001709994
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.59-78


Western Turkey contains both spectacular palaeotectonic and neotectonic features of the Anatolian block. The first of these features is the Menderes Massif, a huge metamorphic terrain comprising various lithologies; the second is the Gediz Graben, one of the most well-known extensional features that formed during the neotectonic period of Turkey's complex geological history. In the study area, approximately E-W-trending Neogene grabens, such as the Gediz, obliquely subdivide palaeotectonic massifs (such as the NE-SW-oriented Menderes Massif) and melange rocks. The terms Menderes Massif and Gediz Graben indicate different products of different tectonic regimes. In this study, lithological components of the region were determined using a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image. Band-ratioing and principal component analysis (PCA) were chosen for lithological discrimination of the outcropping geological units. After processing, PCA gave the best results in terms of lithological differentiation. Furthermore, certain band-ratio colour composites (5/7, 5/4, 4/1) are sensitive to lithological differences in RGB (red, green and blue) space and thus provide a general understanding of the distribution of rock-forming minerals, such as known hydroxyl-bearing and ferric iron minerals, as well as the vegetative characteristics of the region. However, a structural-analysis study, including visual inspection and edge-enhancement techniques, played a complementary role in the geological analysis of the region. Outcrops of the Menderes Massif metamorphic rocks, melange rocks and Neogene cover associated with the Gediz Graben are favourable for remote sensing studies in so far as they allow ease of interpretation and geological evaluation by researchers. One of the most notable results derived from this study was the discrimination of younger neotectonic, fluviatile occurrences from the palaeotectonic Menderes Massif metamorphic rocks and Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone melange rocks. Additionally, boundaries of the active Gediz Graben have been delineated.