Background Parental oral health literacy (OHL) is a determinant of oral health behavior and oral health status of children. Aim To delineate the pathways between parental OHL and oral health consequences in children and to validate the Turkish version of the Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task (TOHLAT-P). Design This cross-sectional study was conducted with 315 parent-child dyads. The TOHLAT-P was psychometrically evaluated. Item analysis was performed to determine the reliability of the TOHLAT-P. Construct validity was tested by comparing a commonly used instrument using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients. A path model was developed to evaluate associations between parental OHL and oral health consequences in children. The model consisted of five endogenous variables (parental oral health behaviors, children's oral health behaviors, children's dental anxiety, dental caries, and oral health-related quality of life [OHRQoL]) and one exogenous variable (parental OHL). A path analysis was used to test the compatibility of the conceptual model, with a statistical significance of p < .001. Results There was a statistically significant association between parental oral health behaviors and children's oral health behaviors, and between dental caries and OHRQoL. The variable most directly affected by parental OHL was parental oral health behaviors, whereas the variable most indirectly affected by parental OHL was children's oral health behaviors. Conclusions The path analysis revealed significant associations between parental and children's oral health behaviors, and between dental caries and OHRQoL. Understanding these pathways is necessary to establish strategies to improve children's oral health. The TOHLAT-P will be useful for future assessments of Turkish children.