Risk factors in urinary stones: A case-control study


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGICAL NURSING, vol.15, no.3, pp.117-122, 2021 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/ijun.12278
  • Page Numbers: pp.117-122
  • Keywords: nursing, risk factors, urinary stones, VITAMIN-D


What are the urinary stones risk factors? Is there a relationship between nutritional, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and urinary stones. The aims of this study are to determine risk factors in urinary stones, to examine the relationship between nutritional, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and urinary stones and to compare these variables with those of healthy individuals. Urinary stones are multifactorial diseases. Determining the risk factors that cause urinary stones is vital to take preventive measures for urinary stones and avoiding recurrence. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed and it included 123 cases and control group. The study data were collected with a questionnaire designed by the researchers. The study results suggested that 73.2% (n = 90) of the participants in the case group and 74.8% (n = 92) of the control group were male, the use of vitamin D was higher and the daily fluid consumption was lower in the case groups. The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that the incidence of urinary stones was 3.9 times higher (OR: 3.9, CI: 2.175-7.180) in patients who had a relative with urinary stones and 2.3 times higher in patients with previous urinary infection (OR: 2.309, CI: 1.200-4.443). It was concluded that a relative with urinary stones, prior urinary infection and usage of vitamin D were risk factors for urinary stones. Nurses should determine risk factors for urinary stones among all population groups and inform the public about the prevention of stone development.