The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and burnout among special education school teachers in Turkey. One hundred and eighteen teachers completed the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Teachers belonged to the psychological counselling and guidance programme, primary education, special education programme, programme in education of students with mental impairment, programme in education of students with hearing impairment, programme in education of students with visual impairment, music education and art education. Findings showed that there were significant relationships between teacher self-efficacy and burnout. Also, significant differences were found between genders and branches in terms of burnout and teacher self-efficacy. Indices of structural equation modelling indicated that domains of burnout were strongly predicted by self-efficacy. Findings highlight the importance of self-efficacy beliefs in special education staff's level of emotional involvement, sense of accomplishment and engagement.