Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an oxidative hemoprotein compound expressed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes that contributes to inflammatory responses. Coronary artery disease (CAD), as the most prevalent form of heart disease, is considered to originate from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In the present study, the potential associations between MPO-463G/A and -129G/A polymorphisms with CAD were investigated in a Turkish population using a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay technique. To the best of our knowledge, the study was the first to examine the association of MPO-463G/A and -129G/A with patient survival rate in a Turkish population. The study population consisted of 201 patients with CAD and 201 healthy controls. The results indicated that there was a significant association of the GA genotype of MPO-463G/A with the case population (P=0.048). Meanwhile, in the patients with CAD, the frequency distributions of the MPO-129A allele (P=0.006) and GA genotype (P=0.001) were significantly increased compared with the G allele and GG genotype, respectively, in CAD patients. Additionally, compared with the GG genotype, the frequency distribution of MPO-129A was significantly increased in the patient group regarding smoking status (P=0.001) and the presence of hypercholester-olemia (P=0.028). However, survival analysis did not detect an effect of either polymorphism on the survival rate of the CAD patients (P>0.05). Therefore, the MPO-129GA genotype may be a significant risk factor for the development of CAD.