The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly in the white population of the world. Therefore, it is necessary to know the etiological factors of malignant melanoma and to take preventive measures in high-risk groups in different populations. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of common melanocytic nevi (CNIN) and atypical melanocytic nevi (AMN) and to identify some phenotypic factors (eye and hair color, skin type), gender, and age associated with CNIN and AMN presence in primary school children in a Turkish population. In this study, 1491 children aged from 7-15 were examined. Brown-black discrete lesions of two millimeters or larger, with the exceptions of solar lentigo and ephelides, were counted as CNIN. The CNIN prevalence was 73.85%, and the ANIN prevalence was 3.45%. The numbers of CNIN and AMN were found to be higher in boys than in girls. While more CNIN were present in the head and neck areas than in other anatomic regions, the number of AMN was higher on the ventral and dorsal trunk. Our study provides evidence for a significant relationship between specific characteristics, including skin type, age, gender and the number of CMN in our population. However, CMN is more frequent in children having a lighter skin type, and its number increases with age. The results of our study and further studies which take sun-exposure characteristics and pigmentary factors into account, may facilitate the determination of the other factors affecting nevus production and the development of further strategies for following and preventing cutaneous melanoma in our geographical area.