This present study investigated micro- and macro-geographic microsatellite DNA variations using five polymorphic microsatellite loci from 27 brown trout populations in Turkey. Average number of alleles and average observed heterozygosity were 7.4 and 0.254, respectively. Even populations from the same sea basin and river system (the so called micro-geographic regions) had unique alleles. Genetic variation among the populations from macro-geographic regions (different sea basins and river systems) was 45.78%. The mtDNA lineages of brown trout that have previously been identified by mtDNA analyses were supported by the analysis of the microsatellite DNA data in general. The Catak population, which belongs to the Tigris lineage, was clustered together with the Euphrates populations within the Adriatic mtDNA lineage, based on microsatellite data. Both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analyses have made it possible to determine a secondary contact between Adriatic and Tigris lineages.