Severe heart failure represents a major source of morbidity and mortality. Poor right ventricular function is an independent prognostic marker for mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. In this study, levosimendan (L) and dobutamine (D) in patients with severe chronic biventricular failure were compared. Forty consecutive patients, who were judged for inotropic therapy by their primary physicians, with acutely decompensated systolic heart failure and having moderate-to-severe right ventricular dysfunction with right ventricular fractional area change of a parts per thousand currency sign24%m were randomized to L and D in a 2:1 fashion. Echocardiographic parameters including tricuspid annular motion and clinical issues were considered. Mean age and sex distribution were not different between the two groups. After the infusion, ejection fraction improved and systolic pulmonary artery pressure decreased significantly in both arms. Longitudinal systolic function of tricuspid annulus improved significantly better in patients with L compared to patients with D (15% +/- 12% vs. 2% +/- 6% improvement, P < 0.001). Furthermore, L improved both 24-h urine output and creatinine, whereas D showed only a small, but significant improvement in urine output without any improvement in the creatinine levels. Levosimendan seems to offer more beneficial effects compared to dobutamine in a specific group of patients with biventricular failure.