This study evaluated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and enoxaparin on ovarian tissue preservation, ovarian reserve and oxidative damage following ovarian torsion/detorsion injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): control; ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R); I/R + NAC; I/R + enoxaparin. Twenty-four hours after detorsion, ovarian tissues were collected for histopathological analysis and measurement of tissue 8-OHdG, GSH, MDA, MPO and SOD concentrations, as well as pre- and post-operative circulating AMH concentrations. Administration of NAC resulted in more pre-antral follicles compared with enoxaparin treatment and haemorrhage and follicle cell degeneration were more pronounced in I/R + enoxaparin group than I/R + NAC group. Both NAC and enoxaparin led to a significant reduction in ovarian tissue 8-OHdG (P = 0.004 and P = 0.01, respectively) and MPO (P = 0.013 and P = 0.023, respectively) concentrations compared with I/R group, indicating a protective effect against I/R oxidative damage. Only NAC-treated animals showed a significant increase in GSH and SOD concentrations and decrease in MDA concentrations compared with I/R group (P = 0.007, P = 0.024 and P = 0.026, respectively). These results indicate that NAC is more effective than enoxaparin in minimizing ovarian damage and preserving ovarian reserve following ovarian torsion. (C) 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.