We hypothesized that solid tumors rarely occur in patients with hydatid disease. We obtained the serum of 14 patients diagnosed with hydatid disease, the serum of 10 patients who did not have a history of hydatid disease, and the hydatid cyst fluid from six patients. These sera and fluid samples were added at different concentrations to NCI-H209/An1 human lung small cell carcinoma cells and L929 mouse fibroblasts as a control group. Sera of patients with hydatid diseases had cytotoxic effects on NCI-H209/An1 cells, but they did not have cytotoxic effects on fibroblast cells. Sera from healthy subjects did not have a cytotoxic effect on the tumor cell line or control fibroblasts. Cyst fluid, also, did not have toxic effects on the NCI-H209/An1 cell line, but was toxic to fibroblasts up to a 1:32 dilution. Sera from patients with hydatid disease had cytotoxic effects on human small cell lung cancer cells in vitro.