Genetic diversity among plant species offers prospects for improving the plant characteristics. Its assessment is necessary to help tackle the threats of environmental fluctuations and for the effective exploitation of genetic resources in breeding programmes. Although wheat is one of the most thoroughly studied crops in terms of genetic polymorphism studies, phylogenetic affinities of Indian and Turkish Triticum species have not been assessed to date. In this study, genetic association of 95 tetraploid and hexaploid wheat genotypes originating from India and Turkey was determined for the first time. Combined analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat markers disclosed 177 polymorphic bands, and both the dendrogram and two-dimensional scatterplot showed similar groupings of the wheat genotypes. Turkish hexaploid varieties were basically divided into two clusters, one group showed its close association with Indian hexaploid varieties and the other with Indian tetraploid varieties. Analysis of molecular variance revealed high (77 %) genetic variation within Indian and Turkish populations. Population structure analysis elucidated distinct clustering of wheat genotypes on the basis of both geographical origin and ploidy. The results revealed in this study will support worldwide wheat breeding programmes and assist in achieving the target of sustainable wheat production.