Eastern Anatolian apples with a unique population structure are genetically different from Anatolian apples

Oz M. H. , BÜYÜK İ., Akpinar A. E. , Ozmen C. Y. , Kazan K., Vurgun H., ...Daha Fazla

GENE, cilt.723, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier


The origin of the apple is known to be the Transcaucasian region. Eastern Anatolia, which is located on the migration routes from Asia to Europe, has a rich and an uncharacterized apple germplasm and the characterization of apple genetic sources from this region is important for both evolutionary studies and apple breeding. In this study, 94 M. domestica accessions originated from seven diverse regions within Eastern Anatolia were studied using 16 SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci. SSR markers we used produced high allele numbers in all loci and CH02d11 (PI: 0.059) with 18 alleles was the most informative locus. In addition, 14 identical accession groups were identified. Most likely due to self-incompatibility, relatively high levels of heterozygosity (Ho: 0.696) was found for Eastern Anatolia apples. Structure Harvester analyses of East Anatolian apple accessions showed that although each group seems to be somewhat distinct, some levels of admixture with other populations might also exist. Due to a significant gene flow between all pairs of seven apple populations, a limited (low) differentiation was found between the populations. Comparisons using 16 common SSR loci revealed that Eastern Anatolia accessions were genetically different from Anatolian accessions. In addition, based on FCA, and Nei's genetic distance analyses, Eastern Anatolian apples were found to be genetically different from the commercial apple cultivars Golden Delicious and Florina. Our results suggesting that Eastern Anatolia apple populations have a unique structure will be useful for future genetic and evolutionary studies on apples.