Calcium phosphate ceramics are generally biocompatible and can develop interactions with human recipient bone. Therefore, they can be widely used in the field of periodontology and dentistry. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the long-term histological bone healing results of experimentally created critical size parietal bone defects in rats. Twelve Wistar rats were used in this investigation. Two 6-mm wide, symmetrical, and circular critical size defects were created in each parietal bone of the animals. While the right defects filled with granular implant (Ceraform (R)), the symmetrical defects were taken as controls. Eighteen months after implantation, rats were killed and defects including the biomaterial with surrounding bone was taken for histological examination. Serial histological sections were cut across the defects and stained for the histological analysis. Both control and Ceraform implanted regions contained dense collagenous tissue. In the implantation site, multinuclear giant cells were observed around the material. On the other hand, there were no necrosis, tumour, and infection in the implantation region. There was no statistical difference between the control and ceraform implanted groups when the bone formation results were compared (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the results revealed that this material is biocompatible and does enhance the new bone building despite the long-term observation period. Although this biphasic ceramic shows within the limits of the study as a less resorptive and not osteoconductive properties, it can be considered as a biocompatible bone defect filling material having a limited application alternative in dentistry and medicine. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.