Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemically administered boric acid on alveolar bone loss, histopathological changes and oxidant/antioxidant status in ligature-induced periodontitis in diabetic rats. Materials and methods. Forty-four Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: (1) non-ligated (NL, n = 6) group, (2) ligature only (LO, n = 6) group, (3) Streptozotocin only (STZ, n = 8) group, (4) STZ and ligature (STZ+LO, n = 8) group, (5) STZ, ligature and systemic administration of 15 mg/kg/day boric acid for 15 days (BA15, n = 8) group and (6) STZ, ligature and systemic administration of 30 mg/kg/day boric acid for 15 days (BA30, n = 8) group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. Silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of lower first molars of the mandibular quadrant. The study duration was 15 days after diabetes induction and the animals were sacrificed at the end of this period. Changes in alveolar bone levels were clinically measured and tissues were histopathologically examined. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. Primary outcome was alveolar bone loss. Seconder outcome (osteoblast number) was also measured. Results. At the end of 15 days, the alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the STZ+LO group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in alveolar bone loss between the STZ+LO 15 mg/kg boric acid and STZ+LO 30 mg/kg boric acid groups (p > 0.05). Systemically administered boric acid significantly decreased alveolar bone loss compared to the STZ+LO group (p < 0.05). The osteoblast number in the BA30 group was significantly higher than those of the NL, STZ and STZ+LO groups (p < 0.05). Inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher in the STZ+LO group the other groups (p < 0.05). Serum TAS levels were significantly higher in the NL and LO groups than the other groups (p < 0.05). The differences in TOS levels were not found to be significant among all the groups (p > 0.05). The OSI values of the BA30 group were significantly lower than the STZ+LO group (p < 0.05). Also, the differences in serum calcium and magnesium levels were insignificant among the all groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Within the limits of this study, it can be suggested that BA, when administered systemically, may reduce alveolar bone loss in the diabetic rat model.