Purpose This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) with the clinical and pathological parameters of 118 laryngeal cancer patients, as well as their effects on the survival of the disease. Methods For the calculation of SII, PLR, and NLR, hemogram tests were conducted before treatment. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value of SII, NLR, and PLR for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results A statistically significant relationship was found between SII and lymphovascular invasion and between NLR and local recurrence, and lymphovascular invasion. In a univariate analysis, SII (p < 0.001) and NLR (p = 0.001) for OS and SII (p < 0.001), PLR (p = 0.043), and NLR (p < 0.001) for DFS were detected as prognostic factors. In a multivariate analysis for OS, SII (HR = 10.54, 95% CI 1.28-86.77; p = 0.029) and extracapsular extension (HR = 3.08, 95% CI 1.15-8.21; p = 0.024) were identified as independent prognostic factors. In a multivariate analysis for DFS, only an extracapsular extension presence (HR = 3.32, 95% CI 1.37-8.08; p = 0.008) was detected as an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion In laryngeal cancer, high SII values were determined as poor independent prognostic factors for OS. High SII, NLR, and PRL have been identified as poor prognostic factors in DFS. A correlation was found between NLR and local recurrence, and lymphovascular invasion and between SII with lymphovascular invasion positivity.