Simple and fast spectrophotometric determination of low levels of thiabendazole residues in fruit and vegetables after pre-concentration with ionic liquid phase microextraction

ALTUNAY N. , Uluzger D., GÜRKAN R.

FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT, cilt.35, sa.6, ss.1139-1154, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 35 Konu: 6
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1444284
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1139-1154


There is a great importance of monitoring thiabendazole (TBZ) residues in fruits and vegetables to ensure food safety. Therefore, a new ionic liquid (IL) phase microextraction method using IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate [C(4)mim][PF6], as extracting solvent is proposed for simple and fast determination of low levels of TBZ in fruits and vegetables by spectrophotometry. The method is based on selective complex formation of TBZ with Cu(II) ions in presence of PF6- as counter ion at pH 5.5, and then microextraction of the complex into the fine micro-drops of IL phase. After optimisation of variables affecting microextraction efficiency, the analytical parameters of the method were determined by calibration curves. The method exhibits a linear relationship (0.3-280gL(-1)), low detection limit (0.1gL(-1)), good intra- and inter-day precision (2.4-4.5% as RSDr%, 2.1-5.6% as RSDR%), good recovery (95.1-98.2%) and high sensitivity enhancement factor (150) by solvent-based calibration curve. It allows a detection limit of 0.24gL(-1) and a range of 0.8-250gL(-1) by the matrix-matched calibration curve. After validation, the method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ residues with method quantification limits in fruit and vegetables of 2.0 and 2.5 mu gkg(-1) with and without adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-15) solution. Recoveries range from 85.5% to 98.2% after spiking (10, 50 and 100 mu gkg(-1), n: 3).