Biofluid sampler: A new gateway for mail-in-analysis of whole blood samples

Locatelli M., Tartaglia A., D'Ambrosio F., Ramundo P., Ulusoy H. İ. , Furton K. G. , ...More

Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol.1143, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 1143
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2020.122055
  • Title of Journal : Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences


The current study reports the development of a novel biofluid sampler (BFS) which is capable of sampling and sample preparation of whole blood without converting it into plasma or serum. The sampler can retain a whole blood sample from 10 to 1000 mu L. Although the device shares the same working principle of dried blood spot (DBS) cards, it eliminates most of the technological shortcomings of DBS cards such as low maximum sample volume (similar to 50 mu L), sample inhomogeneity due to haematocrit, and poor physical adsorption driven analyte retention by incorporating sol-gel derived high efficiency, multi-functional sorbents on cellulose fabric substrate. The performance of BFS was tested via "Mail-in-Analysis" using three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ketoprofen, carprofen and diclofenac) as the test compounds. Human whole blood samples were fortified with the test compounds and sampled on conventional DBS cards and biofluid samplers (BFSs) in the USA. After drying the blood samples at room temperature, the samples were shipped to Italy for chromatographic analysis. The analytes were back-extracted from the DBS cards and BFSs using methanol and subsequently analysed using a short Symmetry C18 column (75 x 4.6 mm, 3.5 mu m). Acetonitrile (ACN) and PBS (30 mM; pH = 2.5) were used as the mobile phases and the elution was performed under isocratic conditions. Compared to the classical dried blood spot cards (DBS), BFSs offer better performance in retaining the selected NSAIDs under conventional postal shipment. By substantially expanding the sampling capacity, eliminating most of the shortcomings of classical DBS cards and exploiting the better materials properties of sol-gel based functional sorbents, BFSs offer a new and profoundly simplified approach for whole blood sampling and analysis and is expected to change the current practice of blood analysis, allowing accurate quantitative analyses either in a local laboratory (on site) or using mail-in-analysis (off site) without compromising the quality of bioanalytical data.