Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of enuresis, to determine accompanying factors, and to identify common methods in the management of enuresis in Turkish children aged between 6 and 11 years living in eastern Anatolia. Methods: The parents of 3,527 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 11 years completed a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire asked about sociodemographic data, enuresis data, physical or psychological disorders, and family stressors. Descriptive statistics and chi(2) test were used for data analysis. Results: The response rate was 88%. The overall prevalence of reported enuresis was 12.96%, and the prevalence of marked enuresis ( at least weekly) was 9.8%. Enuresis was notably more common in boys ( male: female ratio 1.6), and the prevalence rates decreased by age without gender bias. Of all enuretic children, 21% had also daytime bed-wetting. The rate of a positive family history was 42% for siblings only and 66% for the other family members. Significantly more of the dry children woke up spontaneously at night to void as compared with the enuretic children ( p < 0.001). The parental concern level was not high, and only 15% of the children visited a physician for the management of enuresis. Low socioeconomic status, unfavorable perinatal or postnatal history, and unsatisfactory familial characteristics were significantly more frequent in the enuretic group (p < 0.05). The enuretic children had also higher rates of poor school performance and poor social adaptation as compared with nonenuretic children (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that the prevalence of enuresis in eastern Anatolia is similar to that reported from western Anatolia and from most other countries. Turkish families did not report a high-level concern about enuresis, and the problem was managed primarily within the family. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.