Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). The CCHFV has a single-stranded RNA genome of negative sense. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. We investigated the miRNA gene expression profiles in patients with CCHF using microarray for the first time in the world. Microarray analysis was performed using mirBase Ver 21 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). All statistical analyses were performed across the case-control, fatal-control, and fatal-nonfatal case groups using Genespring (Ver 3.0). Fifteen miRNAs were statistical significant in patients with CCHF compared with the controls (5 were upregulated, 10 were downregulated). Seventy-five and sixty-six miRNAs are in fatal compared with control and nonfatal case, respectively (fold change ([FC] >= 50) were statistically significant. In this study, the target genes of important miRNAs were identified and Gene Ontology analyses were performed across all groups. As a result of this study, we propose that the detection of miRNAs in patients with CCHF will allow the determination of therapeutic targets in diseases. CCHF is an important public health problem that can often be fatal. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression in case-control, fatal-control, and fatal-nonfatal case groups. Significant miRNAs associated with fatality were detected in CCHF. This study will serve as a source of data for the development of an antagomir-based therapy against CCHF using miRNAs in the future.