Objective: In recent years, the issue of child abuse has been gaining increasing importance in the world both from medical and social respect. Child abuse is an issue in Turkey as well. Unreported or hidden cases and difficulties in diagnosis aggravate the importance of the problem causes and consequences of family violence. This study aims to determine the levels and the factors affecting child abuse. Methods: The study is cross sectional. The data were collected between May 10, 2010 and July 10, 2010. The study was conducted in the province of Manisa located in western Anatolia Region and in the province of Sivas located in Central Anatolia Region in Turkey and and therefore 600 mothers (300 mothers in each province) were reached. For the collection of the data, three forms were used: the socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire of abuse/neglect, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: In the study, mothers of 878 children were reached. Of the children in the study, 64.8% were exposed to physical abuse, 63.3% to emotional abuse, 36.0% to physical neglect and 7.0% to emotional neglect. Conclusion: In the study it was determined that women who had low economic status, underwent violence by their husbands, had been exposed to their parents' violence during their childhood and/or had low self-esteem scores exerted more violence on their children. This problem can only be solved by training both the family and the society on the prevention of violence prevention, and by providing adequate consulting services and support systems.