Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment with different file systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used in this study. Root canals of the teeth were instrumented and filled before being randomly assigned to three groups. Guttapercha was removed using the Reciproc system, the Twisted File system (TF), and Hedstrom-files (H-file). Apically extruded debris was collected and dried in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of extruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The Reciproc and TF systems extruded significantly less debris than the H-file (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the Reciproc and TF systems. Conclusion: All tested file systems caused apical extrusion of debris. Both the rotary file (TF) and the reciprocating single-file (Reciproc) systems were associated with less apical extrusion compared with the H-file.