This study aimed to define the smoking status and smoke-related gingival melanin pigmentation in army recruitments and was conducted with army recruitments in Sivas. Nine hundred eight subjects were examined. The oral and dental health of those subjects was checked and recorded. The smoking status of the subjects was self-reported and recorded on questionnaires by researchers. The chi(2) test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. More than one-half of the subjects (54.3%) were primary school graduates and the mean age was 20.2 +/- 0.95 years. The response rate regarding smoking was 100%. Of the respondents, 596 (65.7%) were current smokers, 12 (1.3%) were former smokers, and 300 (33.0%) were never smokers. The gingival melanin pigmentation rate was 27.5% in current smokers and 8.6% in those who never smoked (p=0.000). Smoking five to nine cigarettes a day appeared to be sufficient to cause gingival melanin pigmentation. The proportion of smokers who had melanin pigmentation did not change after 10 cigarettes a day. A rehabilitation project on smoking prevention and smoking cessation for army recruitments is urgently needed.