The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity effects of frequently used pesticides, involving cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, on the expression of bdnf and c-fos genes in zebrafish brain tissues. Therefore, brain tissues exposed to intoxication was primarily analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Afterwards, the mRNA transcription levels of BNDF and c-fos genes and the protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The data of the immunofluorescence assay revealed intensive immuno-positivity for bdnf and c-fos genes in the tissues exposed to pesticide intoxication in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the transcription levels of BNDF and c-fos genes, and protein levels were elevated following the intoxication (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001, respectively). These results showed that the exposure to the acute cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid intoxication disrupted the normal neuronal activity, resulting in neurotoxic effect, also DNA-binding Increasing c-fos activation, an oncoprotein from the family of the Nuclear Proteins, is also true of the knowledge that these chemicals are oncogenic in zebrafish brain tissues. Thus, the use of these pesticides poses a potential neuronal and oncogenic risk to the non-target organisms. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.