In this study, it was aimed to research the effects of cutaneous and oral exposure to aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) and magnesium nanoparticles (Mg-NPs) on the brain tissue, which is vitally important in terms of its structure and functions. The study was performed on Wister-Albino rats, which were divided into 10 groups, such as control groups (groups 1 and 2), groups, to which Al and Mg NPs were applied as 500 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg orally (groups 3-6) and 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg cutaneously (groups 7-10). The dosages were administered as a single dose. While brain tissue and serum MDA levels as well as brain tissue TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels have significantly increased in the group, to which 1500 mg/kg Mg-NPs was applied orally, significant decreases have also been observed in brain tissue GPX and SOD levels of the same group. Additionally, meaningful decreases in brain tissue SOD levels and significant increases in TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels have been observed in the group, to which 1500 mg/kg Al-NP was applied orally. On the other hand, it was found that brain tissue GPX and SOD levels of the group, to which 2000 mg/kg Mg-NP was applied cutaneous, have been decreased significantly. Histopathological examinations have also supported these findings. At the end of the study, it was observed that the toxic effect of Al and Mg NPs has varied, depending on the application method, dosage and duration.