The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between the genetic polymorphism of the enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, also known as manganese-dependent SOD), Ala16Val (rs4880), and primary brain tumor risk in the Turkish population. Frequency of the SOD2 gene rs4880 polymorphism was identified in 225 Turkish individuals (120 controls and 105 patients with primary brain tumor) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subject demographics and clinical characteristics were also recorded. The findings were evaluated using logistic regression and chi(2) tests. Logistic regression analysis indicated that smoking did not increase the risk for primary brain tumor [ odds ratio (OR)= 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.44-1.33, chi(2)= 0.352, P= 0.860]. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference in the family history of cancer incidence between the control subjects and the primary brain tumor patients (OR= 0.81, 95% CI= 0.39-1.71, chi(2)= 0.340, P= 0.560). There was no significant association of the histopathological type, genotype/ allele frequencies and inheritance models of tumor with the gene variants among the patients with primary brain tumor. In summary, the results of the present study indicated that the Ala16Val polymorphism of the SOD2 gene was not associated with primary brain tumor risk in the Turkish population studied.