In the last decade, demand for metal-free esthetic restorations has grown considerably due to the development of materials to fulfill the need for an esthetic prosthesis. We examined the effects of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), and potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser applications on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nanohybrid composite superstructures to zirconia and PEEK infrastructures. Zirconia and PEEK specimens were prepared with CAD/CAM technology in accordance with ISO 11405 standards. The disc-shaped samples were randomly separated into four groups (n = 8) according to applied laser type: no treatment and Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and KTP lasers. Nanohybrid composite resin was applied as a veneering material to each infrastructure. After surface treatment of infrastructures by the lasers, the SBS test was carried out to determine the bonding of infrastructures, which were also examined with a stereomicroscope. The SBS were significantly higher in the PEEK specimens treated with the studied lasers. Nd:YAG laser was the most effective method, followed by Er:YAG laser and KTP laser. The lowest SBS value was obtained in the no-treatment group. Stereomicroscopically, the studied lasers produced different irregularities on the infrastructures. PEEK as a framework provides meaningfully higher bonding strength to composite resins compared to zirconia. Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and KTP, in descending order, are efficacious in increasing the attachment of studied structures.