Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different temporary crown materials (TCMs) and surface roughening methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Background data: TCMs are widely used during orthodontic treatment in teeth in need of prosthetic treatment, to prevent damage to the final restoration. However, there is no consensus considering the best method for roughening of the surface of TCMs. Methods: Five different TCMs [Dentalon Plus-(D), Basworth Trim II-(B), Voco Structure Premium-(V), 3M ESPE Protempt 4-(P), and Revotek LC-(R)] were used in this study. Different surface roughening methods (37% phosphoric acid, sandblasting, and Er:YAG laser) were employed in three subgroups (n=20). The SBS test was used to assess the durability of all groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on a representative specimen in each group. Results: The highest mean SBS value was observed in group V, followed by groups D and P, regardless of the surface treatment. The lowest SBS values were observed in group B. The laser-irradiated groups had higher SBS values than the sandblasted and acid-etched groups. Furthermore, a significant difference in SBS values was observed between the laser-irradiated group V and all other groups (p<0.005). Conclusions: The effects of the chemical nature of TCMs on the SBS values appeared to be clinically negligible, whereas the type of surface treatments had a significant influence on bond strengths. Er:YAG laser irradiation caused a significant increase in bond strength between the TCMs and orthodontic brackets.