The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of meloxicam after initial periodontal treatment on interleukin-1beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and clinical parameters in the chronic periodontitis patients. Data were obtained from 30 patients with chronic periodontitis. Fifteen chronic periodontitis patients received 7.5 mg meloxicam, and 15 patients received placebo tablets in a 1x1 regimen for 1 month. All subjects were nonsmokers and had not received any periodontal therapy. The plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. The GCF was collected using a paper strip: eluted and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to determine the cytokine levels. The clinical data and GCF samples were obtained after periodontal therapy and 1 month after periodontal therapy. The PI, GI, PD, and GCF IL-1ra decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in meloxicam group at first month when comparing the initial levels. While decrease of the PI was statistically significant in control group (p < 0.05), statistically significant changes were not determined in the other clinical parameters and GCF cytokine levels (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between two groups in any of the investigated parameters. Our observations did not reveal any influence of meloxicam on levels of IL-1 beta and IL-1ra in chronic periodontitis. Additional clinical studies are advisable to determine whether COX-2 selective drugs alter periodontal disease outcome with greater safety.