Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) inhibits the initiation of carcinogen induced rat mammary tumours and is administrered for extended periods after the initiation of carcinogenesis. It is also a widely used treatment for breast and gynaecological cancer. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate tamoxifen (TAM) administration on vagen development in rats. Material & Methods: Twenty sexually mature and pregnant Wistar albino rats were chosen as the animal model. They were divided into two groups. Group I: Control group, Group II: Tamoxifen applied (between gestational day 16 and 21 days); 100 μg tamoxifen citrate (TAM) in 0.05 ml saline subcutaneously per day/animal. After birth, all female rats were sacrificed on the 60th day and were taken vaginal tissue. Transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy have been used to study changes to the vaginal epithelium. Results: A statistically significant reduction of birth body weight was noted in the experimental group of rats when compared to the control group (P<0.05). We saw increase in the thickness of the epithelium layer and irregularity and disappearance of microscopic papilla, cytoplasmic vacuolation in cells of the surface layer, thin and irregular basal membrane, lateral junction of cells were destroyed in the TAM treated groups. In conclusion, neonatal tamoxifen administration affects vagina epithelium and lead to decreasing birth body weight and vaginal adenosis.