Development of the Turkish version of the Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C+): Dental anxiety and concomitant factors in pediatric dental patients

Buldur B. , Armfield J. M.

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY, vol.42, no.4, pp.279-286, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.17796/1053-4628-42.4.7
  • Page Numbers: pp.279-286


Objective: The aim of this study was to develop the Turkish version of the Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C(+)) and also to explore factors associated with dental anxiety in clinical pediatric dental patients (PDPs). Study Design: The study sample consisted of 421 PDPs aged 12-14, 104 of whom were selected for test-retest analysis. The psychometric evaluation included linguistic validity, exploratory factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC). Construct validity was tested by comparing a commonly used instrument, the Children's Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). Associations between parental dental anxiety, frequency of dental visits, dental caries, dental visit behaviour and children's dental anxiety were also examined. Results: The Turkish version of the IDAF-4C demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha alpha=.96) and test-retest reliability (ICC=.87). Factor analysis showed a fit IDAF-4C model with a single factor, 8 items. Dental anxiety scores were significantly correlated with all measured variables (p<0.001). Girls showed significantly higher dental anxiety scores than boys (p<0.05). Conclusions: This study suggests that the Turkish version of the IDAF-4C(+) is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing dental anxiety and fear in Turkish children.