The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between antioxidant vitamin levels and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). For this purpose, we measured the serum levels of 4 antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and ascorbic acid, in patients with environmentally induced MPM and in healthy controls from one tremolite village (Kureysler), the biggest erionite village (Tuzkoy) and Ankara. A total of 160 subjects were enrolled in the study, 42 (26.3%) diagnosed with MPM and 118 (73.7%) healthy subjects. A comparison was made between the MPM group and three control groups of which two were exposed and one was unexposed to mineral fibers. The study population consisted of 82 males (51%) and 78 females (49%) with a mean of age of 44.8 +/- 14 years (range; 20-65 years). Lowest levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol were found in MPM patients (MPM vs control groups combined, p < 0.0001 for each antioxidant vitamin), without any relation to age or sex. There was no significant difference between the antioxidant levels of healthy controls of Tuzkoy and Ankara. In conclusion; our findings suggested an increased risk of MPM being associated with low levels of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in patients with MPM.