Introduction: The performance of the drilling process
depends on the characteristics of the drilling equipment and
surgeon’s skill. To our knowledge, no research has focused
on multi-parameter analysis of the dynamic behaviour of
drills during the drilling process. This study aimed to
characterise the physical changes and effects of different
drills attached to a robotic arm during drilling of artificial
bones in a standardised experimental setup.
Materials and Methods: Drilling processes using three
brands of drills attached to a robotic arm were compared in
terms of thrust force, vibration, noise level, speed deviation,
and temperature. A standardised experimental setup was
constructed, and measurement data were analysed
statistically. Identical artificial bones were drilled 10 times
with each drill.
Results: Thrust force measurements, which varied through
the cortex and medulla, showed expressive differences for
each drill for maximum and mean values (p<0.001).
Meaningful differences were obtained for mean vibration
values and noise level (p<0.001). Speed variation
measurements in drilling showed conspicuous differences
with confident statistics (p<0.001). Induced temperature
values were measured statistically for Drill 1, Drill 2, and
Drill 3 as 78.38±11.49°C, 78.11±7.79°C, and 89.77±7.79°C,
Conclusion: Thrust force and drill bit temperature were
strongly correlated for each drill. Vibration values and noise
level, which also had an influential relationship, were in the
acceptable range for all experiments. Both thrust force and
speed deviation information could be used to detect the drill
bit status in the bone while drilling.