This multicenter study aimed to identify the different implant-and patient-related risk factors for long-term short dental implant success. Through a retrospective chart review of three centers, patient information regarding demographic variables, smoking habits, history of periodontitis, systemic diseases, and medications in addition to the parameters for short implant placement including implant manufacturer, design, anatomical location, diameter and length, and type of placement was collected. For statistical analysis, univariate regression models were used at the implant and patient levels. A total of 460 short implants placed in 199 patients followed up for up to 9 years were reviewed. Survival rates of the short implants were 95.86% and 92.96% and success rates were 90% and 83.41% for implant- and patient-based analysis, respectively. Peri-implantitis was reported as the primary cause of short dental implant failure (34/46, 73.91%). Univariate regression models revealed that female sex was strongly related to short implant success. In addition, smoking and history of periodontitis were found to have a significant negative influence on short implant success at the implant and patient levels. Taken together, these results support the use of short implants as a predictable long-term treatment option; however, smoking and history of periodontitis are suggested to be the potential risk factors for short implant success. Therefore, clinicians need to assess these potential risk factors and make treatment decisions accordingly.