The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on human fibroblast cell lines of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chitosan and propolis as root canal irrigating solutions. Human fibroblast cells were exposed to chitosan, propolis and NaOCl for 4 and 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by determination of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level with an ELISA kit. The data of cell cytotoxicity were analysed statistically using a test of one-way analysis of variance at a significance level of p < 0.05. In the NaOCI group, the 8-OHdG level was higher than in the chitosan group, but there was no statistical difference when compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). It was determined that the irrigation solutions were cytotoxic, depending on the dose and time. NaOCl was the most toxic solution after both 4and 24 h of exposure (p < 0.05). Chitosan and propolis may be alternatives to NaOCl for irrigation solutions, because they are both less toxic and produce less oxidative DNA damage.