The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the sagittal, transverse, and vertical effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and fan-type RME on dentofacial structures. The study group consisted of 34 patients, 14 boys and 20 girls (average age 12.5 years), selected without considering their skeletal class and sex. The fan-type RME group comprised 17 subjects, who had an anterior constricted maxilla with a normal intermolar width. The RME group comprised 17 other subjects, who had a maxillary transverse discrepancy with a posterior crossbite. The records obtained for each patient included a lateral and a frontal cephalometric film, upper plaster models, and occlusal radiograph obtained before treatment (T1), after expansion (T2), and immediately after a three-month retention period (T3). The data obtained from the evaluation of the records before and after treatment, after treatment and after retention, and before treatment and after retention were compared using paired t-test. Further comparisons between the groups were made using Student's t-test. There was significantly greater expansion in the intercanine than in the intermolar width in the fan-type RME group as compared with the RME group. Downward and forward movement of the maxilla was observed in both groups. The upper incisors were tipped palatally in the RME group, but they were tipped labially in the fan-type RME group. There was significantly greater expansion in the nasal cavity and maxillary width in the RME group as opposed to the fan-type RME group.