The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze hybrid layer and nanoleakage of composite resin restorations in cavities prepared by either Er,Cr:YSGG laser or bur, followed by acid etching in primary teeth. Ten extracted primary molar teeth were randomly allocated into two groups consisting of ten cavities according to surface treatment regimen: Er,Cr:YSGG laser + acid etching(group 1) and bur + acid etching(group 2). Restorations of all samples were completed. Then, teeth were sectioned and immersed to ammoniacal silver nitrate solution. After polishing, hybrid layer thicknesses were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ion analysis was carried out with SEM/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy preparation in terms of nanoleakage. Hybrid layer thickness and the amount of silver ions were assessed for the acid-etched groups. The collected data were analyzed with independent sample t test and Spearman's rank correlation. In groups 1 and 2, the mean hybrid layer thicknesses were 4.25 +/- 1.41 and 5.24 +/- 1.07 mu m and the silver ion percentages were 10.97 +/- 13.81 and 22.79 +/- 21.62 %, respectively. Although no significant correlation was observed between the increase of hybrid layer thickness and the amount of silver ions, more silver ions were observed in group 2 (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, acid-etched cavities prepared with laser promoted better results when compared to the acid-etched cavities prepared with bur.