This study aimed to determine the relation between methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk and the frequency of this polymorphism. The study involved 64 lung cancer patients (the study group) with definitive diagnosis and 61 noncancerous subjects (the control group). MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutation analysis was made using DNA isolated from peripheric blood and multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization strip test. Eighty-four percent of the patients were male. The age, gender, and history of alcohol use of the patients and control group were statistically similar. While MTHFR 677T and 677C allele frequency was 0.33 and 0.67 in the patients respectively, it was 0.29 and 0.71 in the control group. The frequencies of MTHFR 1298C and 1298A were 0.33 and 0.67 in the patients, and it was 0.31 and 0.69 in the control group respectively. When MTHFR 677TT and 677CT genotypes were compared with 677CC genotype, lung cancer risk was 2.4 times higher in the 677TT genotype. When MTHFR 1298AC and 1298CC genotypes were compared with 1298AA genotype, lung cancer risk was 1.5 times higher in 1298CC genotype. According to the results, allele frequency of homozygote T and C was high in lung cancer patients. It was 3.05 and 1.29 times higher in smokers than in non-smokers, and 3.05 and 1.64 times higher in males than in females; 3.0 and 2.44 times higher in those with non-small cell lung cancer than in those with small-cell lung cancer.