Fluid processes in the Tesbihdere base-metal-Au deposit: Implications for epithermal mineralization in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

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BOZKAYA G., Banks D. A. , Ozbas F., Wallington J.

CENTRAL EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES, cilt.6, sa.2, ss.148-169, 2014 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 6 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2014
  • Doi Numarası: 10.2478/s13533-012-0169-9
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.148-169


Tesbihdere is one of a number of spatially close epithermal Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au deposits hosted by andesites and rhyolites, typical of deposits in the Biga peninsula. Microthermometry of fluid inclusions shows a wide range of temperatures, similar to 360-170A degrees C, and salinities, similar to 10-0.5 wt.% NaCl, in the different deposits studied. Dilution of a moderately saline magmatic? fluid with meteoric water occurred at constant temperature indicating, the temperature of both fluids was controlled by the geological environment. Boiling was not a major factor, but did occur in very minor amounts. The large range of temperatures within individual samples can only reasonably be explained by variations from near lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure during vein and fracture opening. That this pressure decrease did not produce extensive boiling suggests that vein opening was gradual rather than aggressive, allowing the pressure and temperature decrease to follow a path close to the L-V boiling curve. P-T reconstruction places emplacement of these ore veins at between 300-500 m beneath the surface. Similarities of LA-ICPMS of fluid inclusions from Tesbihdere, Azitepe and Basmakci, supports the conclusion that they were part of the same contemporaneous mineralizing system. The fluids are dominated by Na, with the concentrations of K > Ca > Mg combined equivalent to the concentration of Na. The range of K/Na ratios is not consistent with the fluid inclusion temperatures as the calculated temperatures are significantly higher indicating the fluids were not close to equilibrium with the enclosing rocks. Elevated K concentrations are consistent with acid-sulphate waters in shallow epithermal systems. Ore metals Cu, Zn and Pb are present in significant concentrations similar to 500, 300 and 200 ppm respectively and the low Fe/Mn ratios are indicative of a relatively oxidising fluid. The negative delta S-34 values of sulphides are consistent with boiling and oxidising redox conditions.