In the present study, mitochondrial DNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and nuclear DNA inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were used to assess the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among Garra rufa samples from Anatolia. The complete mtDNA NADH 3/4 dehydrogenase (ND-3/4) gene amplified by PCR was digested with eight restriction enzymes. These enzymes produced 20 composite haplotypes for G. rufa populations. All the mtDNA haplotypes detected were highly diverged from each other and each lineage had a unique genetic profile. The evaluation of mtDNA PCR-RFLP data coupled with geological history of Anatolia indicated a deep genetic divergence among the mtDNA haplotypes of G. rufa populations from drainages of the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf, suggesting an early isolation of Tigris-Euphrates with Orontes river and other rivers draining into the Mediterranean Sea. In general, data from both mtDNA and nDNA were congruent. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.