Dyspeptic symptoms are common in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and have been attributed to hypercalcemia; however, they may also become permanent after parathyroid surgery. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with PHPT and to see whether there is a relationship between dyspeptic complaints and H. pylori infection. Of 21 patients with PHPT, 18 patients had dyspeptic complaints. These 18 female patients with PHPT and dyspeptic symptoms were the study population, and 20 female volunteers with dyspeptic symptoms were the controls. An endoscopic examination was performed in all controls and in patients before parathyroid surgery. H. pylori was assessed by serological and histological evaluation. H. pylori was identified upon histological evaluation in 17 patients (94.4%) and serologically in 17 patients (94.4%). Active macroscopic and microscopic gastritis were found in 15 (83.3%) and in 17 (94.4%) of the patients, respectively. In the control group, H, pylori was identified histologically in 13 subjects (65%) and serologically in 17 subjects (85%). The prevalence of H. pylori assessed by histological examination was significantly (P < 0.05) different between patients and controls. There was a significant association between H. pylori infection identified by histology and/or serology and the presence of microscopic (r = 1; P < 0.001), as well as macroscopic (r = 0.54; P < 0.05), gastritis. In conclusion, this study showed that H. pylori infection was found frequently (85.7%) in patients with PHPT. In the management of PHPT with or without surgery, patients, especially those with dyspeptic symptoms, should be evaluated for H. pylori infection, which can be effectively eradicated by appropriate therapy.