THE TRADITION OF ISAGOGE IN THE HISTORY OF LOGIC


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BILIMNAME, cilt.36, ss.45-62, 2018 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 36
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.28949/bilimname.435356
  • Dergi Adı: BILIMNAME
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.45-62

Özet

Sistemli bir bilim olarak milattan önce üçüncü ve dördüncü yüzyıllarda Antik Yunan dünyasında ortaya çıkmış olan mantık; bilim olmasından ziyade diğer bilimlerin öğrenilebilmesi için gerekli olan “araç” olarak kabul görülmüştür. Bu özelliği sebebiyle ona büyük değer atfedilmiş ve mantık öğretimine özel önem verilmiştir.  Mantığı sistemli ve anlaşılır biçimde kavratmak amacıyla çeşitli çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Porphyrios tarafından Aristoteles’in Kategoriler’ine giriş olarak yazılmış olan İsagoci isimli eser de bir yanıyla bu niteliğe sahiptir. Söz konusu kitap mantığın İslam dünyasına girmesi ile Arapçaya tercüme edilmiştir. Başta Fârâbî, İbn Sîna olmak üzere Müslüman düşünürler tarafından aynı isimle veya benzer adlarla birçok çalışma yapılmıştır. İsagoci üzerine çok sayıda şerh ve haşiye yazılmış bunun sonucunda İslam dünyasında İsagoci geleneği ortaya çıkmıştır.  Bu gelenek ortaya çıktığı devirden günümüze kadar bazı kopukluklar olsa da devam etmiştir. İslam dünyasında hiç şüphesiz en çok şöhret bulmuş olan İsagoci, on üçüncü yüzyılda yaşamış olan Esirüddin el-Ebherî tarafından kaleme alınmıştır. Ebherî’nin yazmış olduğu İsagoci’de mantık konuları başlangıç seviyesindeki kimseler için oldukça kolay kavranılabilecek bir yapıya sahiptir. Bir hayli itibar görmüş olan bu tarz, İslam dünyasında İsagoci’nin şerh ve haşiyeleri ile devam ettirilmiş; Ebherî’nin İsagoci’si kendine has ayrı bir gelenek oluşturmuştur. Ebherî’nin İsagoci’sinin bilinen ilk şerhi on dördüncü yüzyılda yaşamış olan Hüsameddin Kâtî tarafından yapılmıştır. On beşinci yüzyıl müelliflerinden Muhyiddin et-Tâlişî de bu şerhe bir haşiye yazmış ve böylece günümüze kadar devam eden bir gelenek ortaya çıkmıştır.  Bunun sonucunda gerek İsagoci ve şerhleri gerekse de benzer tarzda kaleme alınan başka kitaplar İslam dünyasının her köşesine yayılmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Mantık, Mantık öğretimi, İsagoci, Porphyrios, Ebheri.

Logic as a systematic science, first appeared in the Ancient Greek world during the third and fourth centuries B.c. Logic is an independent science but it has been seen as a “organon” for learning other sciences. Logic has been attributed great importance because of this feature. For this reason special emphasis has been placed on teaching of logic. Some books have been written for this purpose.

From the past to the present the book named Isagoge has an important place in teaching of logic. Isagoge was written by Porphyrios as an introduction to the Categorias, book of Aristotle. Five universal concept have been examined in Isagoge. At the same time this book is the work of the first emergence of the problem of universals.  

            Isagoge influenced the later period. This book has created a special tradition. This effect comes from translating it from Greek to Latin. Marius Victorinus first translated Isagoge from Greek into Latin. But his translation is not complete. Then Boethius made his full and original translation and wrote two comments to Isagoge. Many commentaries were made on the work of Porphyrios in Greek and Latin. The oldest known interpretation of this book was made by Ammonious. Among the commenters of Porphyrios’ Isagoge are: Philoponus, Olympiodorus, Elias and Stephanus. In the following periods, the Syriacs were very interested in Isagoge. They translated this book several times into their own language. Syriac logicians have placed Isagoge at the introduction of Organon.

Logic science was then passed on to the Muslims through the Syrians. Muslims have accepted sciences such as philosophy and logic after great debates. The reason for the scientific discussion is that these sciences are foreign sources. In the following period, logic is taught in the madrasas especially under the influence of Ghazali.

 Isagoge has been translated into Arabic with the introduction to the logic in Islamic world. Abd-Allah Ibn al-Mukaffa first translated Isagoge of Porphyrios into Arabic. But his translation is incomplete. This book has been translated into Arabic as a whole by Abu Uthman al-Dımeshqî. In later periods Isagoge was translated into Arabic many times. After the translation period original works were written in Islamic World. Muslims have done much study with name Isagoge. Because Isagoge means introduction, Muslims sometimes said “al-madhal” to such works. In this sense, it is said that the first original Isagoge author is  al-Kindi. He wrote an introduction book entitled al-Madhal al-Mantıq. Ibn Tayyib al-Sarahsi, Abu Bakr al-Zakariyya al-Râzi  and Ebu Bishr Matta b. Yunus  wrote similar works in the same way. Later, al-Farabi, Avicenna and Ikhvan al-Safa also wrote Isagoci.

Over time, the word “al-madhal” in Arabic dominated the Greek word “Isagoge” and replaced him for a long time. In the 13th century, one of the Muslim writers chose Isagoci as a name for his short piece of logic and make its learn as much as the day. This author's name is Athîr al-Din al-Abharî and his book name is İsagoge fî al-Mantıq. He gave this name to his study, influenced by the book of Porphyrios. In addition to this, the use of the name “al-madhal”, as well as the use of Isagoge, like al-Farabi and Avicenna. Al-Abharî also named his book Isagoge and famous with this name. In the Islamic world name of this book of al-Abharî comes to mind when called Isagoge. Because this work has been taught as introduction to science for centuries in madrasas. So much work has been done on Isagoge that after a certain point the name of this book has become a kind of name for introduction books. Isagoge has been working in the hands of Islamic logicions and has gained a original status in Arabic in Islamic culture.

A large number of commentaries and glossa have been written on Isagoge, which is written by al-Abharî. As a result, the Isagoge tradition emerged in the Islamic World. This tradition continued from the 13th century, even if there were some disconnections. The most basic reason why this work constitutes a tradition is that it has been  written in didactic style. In Isagoge, the logic matters are fairly easy to understand for beginners.

In the Islamic world, this style has been continued with the commentaries and glossa of Isagoge. The first known commentary of Isagoge was made by Husam al-din Kâtî who lived in the fourteenth century. Muhyi al-din et-Tâlishi, one of the fifteenth century authors, wrote this a glossa. So that a tradition that has been going on day by day has emerged. As a result, both Isagoge and its commentarias, as well as other books of similar style, have spread to every corner of the Islamic world.

Keywords: Logic, Logic teaching, Isagoge, Porphyrios, Al-Abharî.