Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the mortality and the factors which may affect it in patients who were transferred to peritoneal dialysis (PD) from hemodialysis (HD), compared to patients assigned to PD as first-line therapy. Material and Methods: A total of 322 patients treated with PD between 2001 and 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty three patients were excluded and the data of remaining 299 patients (167F, mean follow up time 38.5 +/- 26.8 months, mean age 44.7 +/- 15.9 years) were evaluated. Patients were separated into two groups according to their HD history. Group 1 and group 2 consisted of patients with (n=48) and without (n=251) a history of prior HD, respectively. Socio-demographic characteristics such as who helped administer the PD and the preference of patients (compulsory vs their preference) were obtained from the patient records. The clinical data obtained during the last clinical evaluation before the initiation of PD (blood pressure, daily urine volumes, daily ultrafiltration amounts and laboratory parameters) were recorded. Additional systemic diseases and information about the etiologies of the end stage renal disease (ESRD) of all patients were recorded. Frequencies of the infectious complications were recorded. Patient and technique survival were investigated and compared between groups. Results:. In group 1, the patients were older and had less urine amounts (p=0.028 and 0.041 respectively). Thirty five patients (70%) and 25 patients (9.3%) have been transferred to PD due to vascular problems in group 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001). In group 1, 37 (74%) patients were carrying out PD treatment by themselves, compared to 222 (88.4%) patients in group 2 (p=0.016). Incidences of peritonitis and catheter exit site/tunnel infection attacks were found 24.9 +/- 26.8 and 27.2 +/- 26.5 patient-months in group 1, and 27.4 +/- 22.4 and 33.4 +/- 24.5 patient-months in group 2, respectively (p=0.50 and 0.12),In group 1, twenty three patients have death and 2 patients have discontinued the treatment due to transplantation. In group 2, 174 patients have discontinued the treatment (55 patients have died, 80 patients have been switched to hemodialysis and 39 patients have received renal transplantation). There were significant differences between groups according to the last condition (p<0.001). Mean patient survival were found 22.9 +/- 4.2 and 55.5 +/- 2.8 patient-months in group 1 and group 2, respectively. The patient survival rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis were 50%, 40.9%, 27.3% and 9.1% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years in group 1 and 90.9%, 81.6%, 73.9%, 64.9% and 53.1% at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years in group 2, respectively. The mortality rate is higher in patients who have undergone HD before PD compared without HD history (log rank:<0.001). In the Cox proportional hazards model analysis, preference of PD (RR: 7.72, p<0.001), presence of diabetes (RR: 2.26, p=0.01), pretreatment serum albumin level (RR: 0.37, p<0.001) and catheter exit size infection attacks (RR: 0.34, p=0.01) were identified as predictors of mortality. Conclusion: Our data show that mortality in patients transferred to PD from HD was higher than in patients undergoing PD as first-line therapy. Compulsory choice such as vascular access problems and social factors were the most important causes of increasing mortality in patients transferred to PD from HD.