Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a thick-borne viral zoonotic disease. The pathogenesis and the reasons why cases have a mild or severe course in CCHF have not yet been explained. In this study, we investigated the relationship between promoter -2518 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the MCP-1 gene and the clinical course of CCHF. The MCP-1-2518 A/G SNP (rs1024611) frequency was examined in 128 virologically/serologically confirmed CCHF patients and 181 healthy controls by using the PCR-RFLP method. When CCHF patients and controls were compared, no significant difference was found between genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the -2518 A/G SNP of MCP-1 gene (P > .05). Compared to the AA genotype, both AG (P = .016; OR = 2.57) and GG genotype (P = .039; OR = 3.43) were found with significantly higher frequencies in mild/moderate cases than in severe cases. Compared to the AG + GG genotype, AA showed a significant risk for severe CCHF (60.0% vs 38.4%, P = .02; OR = 2.41). In contrast, the AG genotype showed a significant protective effect against severe disease compared to AA + GG genotype (29.1% vs 47.9%, P = .013; OR = 2.58). Compared to mild/moderate cases, the A allele was found to be significantly higher in severe cases (0.745 vs 0.623, P = .039; OR = 1.77). However, no significant relationship was found between fatal and nonfatal cases in terms of genotype or allele frequencies (P > .05). In conclusion, both -2518 AA genotype and A allele of MCP-1 were associated with disease severity, and the AG genotype had a protective effect against a severe disease course in CCHF patients.