In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of volume status on blood pressure (BP) and on left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study enrolled 74 patients (F/M: 36/38, mean age 53.5 +/- 15.3 years, mean HD time 41.5 +/- 41 months) that were on HD treatment for at least 3 months. Demographics, biochemical tests, hemogram and C-reactive protein levels, mean interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), mean percentage of ultrafiltration (UF), and intradialytic complications such as hypotension and cramps were determined. Mean values of predialysis and postdialysis BP measurements were recorded a month before echocardiographic examination. On the day after a midweek dialysis session, 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiographic examination were made concurrently. The patients were classified into two groups according to volume status: normovolemic (group 1; 14F/24M, mean age 50 +/- 16.7 years, mean dialysis time 47.7 +/- 47.7 months) and hypervolemic (group 2; 15F/21M, mean age 57.3 +/- 12.7 years, mean dialysis time 34.9 +/- 32 months). HD duration, IDWG, UF, and interdialytic complication rates were similar between the two groups (p < 0.05). Eleven patients (28.9%) of group 1 and 8 patients (22.2%) of group 2 showed dipper (p = 0.50). Valvular damage was more common in group 2 (p = 0.002). Whereas 33 patients (91.7%) had left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in group 2, 21 patients of the group 1 (55.3%) had LVH (p < 0.001). Although LVMI showed a significant positive correlation with cardiothoracic index, predialysis and postdialysis BP, IDWG, UF, daytime and nighttime BP measurements of 24 h ABPM, a significant negative correlation was seen with Kt/V urea and serum albumin levels. In conclusion, increased IDWG and UF and elevated BP are independent predictors of LVH for HD patients. Increased volume status leads to IDWG and elevated BP and eventually causes severe LVMI increases.