The study was carried out to examine litter size as a reproductive trait in the Kangal breed of Turkish shepherd dog in the central Anatolian province of Sivas between 2003 and 2005, under different environmental conditions. The study considered 145 L comprising 899 puppies, average litter size being 6.20 puppies. Average litter size in 2003, 2004 and 2005 was 5.94, 6.56 and 6.00, respectively but the difference was found to be statistically not significant (p>0.05). Grouping the age of dams as young (<= 3 years), middle-aged (>3 years and <7 years) and old (>= 7 years), average litter sizes were 5.83, 6.44 and 6.75, respectively; the difference was found to be not significant (p>0.05). Average temperature of birth month was classified as cold (<5 degrees C), moderate (>= 5 and <= 15 degrees C) and warm (>15 degrees C), average litter sizes being 6.02, 6.21 and 6.34, respectively; again, the difference was found to be insignificant (p>0.05). Average litter size by location of breeding was 6.45 for farms and 5.78 for villages and difference was found to be insignificant (p>0.05). As a result, it can be said that the environmental influences investigated had no effect on litter size in Kangal dogs.