Comparison of the Command and Inclusion Styles of Physical Education Lessons to Teach Volleyball in Middle School


PHYSICAL EDUCATOR-US, vol.76, no.1, pp.182-196, 2019 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.18666/tpe-2019-v76-i1-8481
  • Title of Journal : PHYSICAL EDUCATOR-US
  • Page Numbers: pp.182-196


This experimental study compared the impact of the command style and inclusion style of physical education lessons on teaching basic volleyball skills to 6th graders during the 2014-2015 academic year. The 100 students in the research group were divided into three groups: control (n = 32), command style (n = 34), and inclusion style (n = 34). A Physical Education and Sport Attitude Scale (PESAS) developed by Demirhan and Altay (2001) and a Volleyball Psychomotor Skills Test (VPST) developed by the researcher were administered to all students in the research group as pretests and posttests. After the pretest scores were recorded, all students participated in volleyball lessons for 2 hr/week over 8 weeks; curriculum units included finger passing forearm passing, and underhand service. According to the findings, when the PESAS posttest scores were compared, the inclusion style group's skills improvement was greater than that of the command style group and the control group (p > 0.05). When the VPST posttests were analyzed, the inclusion style group's finger passing forearm passing and underhand service skills scores were statistically higher than those of the command style group and the control group (p < 0.05). In summary, students' basic volleyball skills and physical education attitude improved more through the inclusion style than through the command style or the traditional teaching methods of the control group.