Rhabdosciadium urusakii E. Akalin sp. nov. (Apiaceae) is described and illustrated. It occurs very locally on scree slopes in Kemaliye (Erzincan), east Anatolia. This slender species is closely related to R. aucheri (Iran) and R. oligocarpum (south Anatolia). It is a very rare and critically endangered species. A key to all Rhabdosciadium species is given in this paper. The new species is characterized by dichotomous branched, long petiolate, pinnate and linear leaves, ovate-lanceolate bracts, a brownish band and hairs on the dorsal side of the petals.