This paper discusses the effect of particle size, impeller speed and pulp density on flotation and entrainment of coal and associated gangue, consisting mostly of kaolinite and illite. Experimental work indicated that particle size was the most important parameter influencing the recovery and entrainment behavior of coal and ash. The effects of impeller speed and pulp density were found to be less on entrainment. Lower agitation or solid density with higher kerosene concentrations yielded more selective froth products at the same recovery level and lower entrainment. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved.