MiRNAs are a family of small, endogenous, and evolutionarily conserved non-coding ribonucleic acids that have been involved in the regulation of several essential, cellular, and functional processes. MicroRNAs are known to play key roles in all types of cancer and function as oncogenes (oncomirs) or tumour-suppressors in up-regulation or down-regulation processes respectively. MiRNAs have potential power to be examined as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Modulating miRNAs, based on two major approaches (miRNA mimics and miRNA antagonists), is used for clinical development of therapeutic miRNAs. This review emphasizes the latest discovery in the field of miRNA research involved in cancer, biomarkers, and therapeutics.